What We Do

What We Do

System Overview

Our thermal conversion system costs far less to build and operate than competitors’ and addresses global markets worth trillions of dollars. Pennsaco’s continuous-flow system consumes renewable and readily available waste feedstocks, transforming them into green hydrogen, biochemicals, biofuels, and biocarbons at maximum conversion rates.


Waste streams and biomass harbor untapped resources. Effectively refining these materials unlocks vast resources and transforms them into valuable products. Producing pure streams of hydrogen and other gases from waste provides the core building blocks for renewable fuels, chemicals, and biocarbons at or below current market prices for fossil fuel derived competitors.

A Path Forward

Our vision to dramatically improve output and efficiency in major industries


Pennsaco’s technology is optimized to produce clean, green, high purity streams of hydrogen from biomass, plastic, and municipal solid waste.  By 2050, green hydrogen, made from renewable resources, is set to become a “$11 trillion-dollar commodity sector, transform the energy industry, and play a big role in fighting climate change.  We’re reaching an inflection point where green hydrogen could supply our energy needs, fuel our cars, heat our homes and be used in industries that have no economically viable alternative to fossil fuels. Together with renewable electricity, green hydrogen gives us a shot at attaining a zero-carbon-emission global economy by 2050.” Bank of America, 2020.  Pennsaco’s superior green hydrogen production capabilities will play a significant role in the global transformation to a hydrogen economy.
Pennsaco’s Green Hydrogen System Strategic Advantage:
  • One system, two patented pathways to green hydrogen production from waste – produce hydrogen at rates 30% greater than current state of the art
  • High yields – 75 kg of green hydrogen/ton of biomass
  • Low cost of compressed hydrogen
  • Requires no external energy for operations – 100% energy sufficient
  • Carbon negative – greater environmental impact than H2 produced from wind or solar
  • Continuous flow operations


Biochar for Regenerative Agriculture & Carbon Sequestration

Agriculture generates 24% of GHG emissions worldwide.  “It is estimated that at least 50 percent of the carbon in the earth’s soils has been released into the atmosphere over the past centuries. Bringing that carbon back home through regenerative agriculture is one of the greatest opportunities to address human and climate health, along with the financial well-being of farmers.” – Project Drawdown
Pennsaco’s biochar, created from heating biomass in the absence of oxygen, captures carbon and is a major tool in regenerative agriculture and climate change mitigation. The benefits of biochar include:
  • Each ton of biochar applied to soils removes 3 tons of CO2 from the atmosphere and qualifies for carbon offset credits.
  • Regenerative agriculture practices like using biochar, increase the carbon content of soil and result in improved soil organic matter content, increased productivity, and better water retention.
  • Plants grow deeper roots and are more pest resistant.
  • Using regenerative practices, farms can eliminate fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pest control, and see soil carbon levels rise, adding up to 25 to 60 tons of carbon per acre.
  • Regenerative agriculture could increase from 11.84 million hectares to 221-322 million hectares by 2050, sequestering and avoiding 14.5-22.3 gigatons of CO2 emissions.
  • Biochar itself can reduce CO2 emissions 2.2-4.4 gigatons by 2050.
  • The market for biochar is projected to grow to $3.6 billion by 2027, with demand projected at 1,615M metric tons by 2050.
Pennsaco’s biochar is a simple yet powerful tool in the fight against climate change.
Activated Carbon for Clean Water

There is an urgent global need for abundant, clean, safe drinking water.  2.1 billion people lack access to clean water in their homes.  32% of the world’s population, 2.4 billion people, lack access to sanitation.  842,000 people die every year from diseases that can be prevented by access to clean drinking water and sanitation.
Pennsaco is joining the fight to increase global access to clean, safe drinking water and sanitation by producing activated carbon from pyrolysis of biomass.
  • Activated carbon is carbon processed at high heat in the absence of oxygen to produce small, low volume, pores in the carbon that increase the surface area available for adsorption; one gram of activated carbon has a surface area of 3000m2 or 32,000 square feet.
  • This pore structure makes activated carbon an ideal medium for cleaning water to safe drinking water standards; a gram of activated carbon will purify 1,000 liters of water.
  • A standard Pennsaco facility will produce 8,000 tons of activated carbon to clean 8,000,000,000 gallons of water to drinking quality standards.
  • Activated carbon is also used in air treatment, pharmaceutical production and industrial applications. 
  • The market for activated carbon was $6.23 billion in 2020 and is expected to grow at a 9.5% CAGR to $9.79 billion by 2025


Pennsaco captures 95% of feedstock BTU value, generates twice the energy per available BTU than today’s waste and biomass power plants, and is carbon negative.
  • Energy Amplification.  Patented technology produces 30% more renewable electricity than conventional methods
  • Self Sufficient. Requires no external power or gas for plant operations (a significant hidden cost in competing operations)
  • Baseload Power. Continuous flow processes generate power and products 24/7 with 95% availability
  • Global renewable power generation market demand was 6,890.7 TWh in 2019. Market poised for tremendous room for growth.
  • 2020 renewable electricity market volume was 7,317.9 TWh.  Renewable energy met only 13% of total energy demand.  Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.5% to 12,630.9 TWh in 2027 with a valuation in excess of $2,900 Billion.
  • U.S. set goal of 100% CO2 free electricity by 2035.  Pennsaco’s renewable electricity is carbon negative


Pennsaco’s technology produces pure streams of  hydrogen and other gases that form the elemental building blocks of biofuels and hundreds of biochemicals. A Pennsaco biorefinery provides an immediate, profitable alternative to fossil fuel based fuels and chemicals, costs far less to build and operate, and addresses global markets worth trillions of dollars. Our hybrid system differs from typical thermal conversion technologies in several significant ways:
  • Produces biofuels and biochemicals that compete favorably at $50/bbl oil
  • Maximizes energy production with highest thermal efficiency
  • Bypasses syngas production, generating pure CO and H2 for maximum conversion rates to biofuels and biochemicals
  • Feedstock agnostic – municipal solid waste, crop residues, wet solids (from AD and others), hazardous waste, etc.
  • Continuous-flow technology with proven, commercial-scale operations
  • 55% EBITDA without subsidies on small plant (250 TPD) using current petroleum prices
  • Patents underway that increase turbine efficiency by 40% over industry standard
  • Produces high-value biocarbons as a by-product
  • Consumes CO2 as a feedstock, making the system and its products highly carbon-negative



The concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is now at its highest level in recorded history.  The fight to address climate change presents us with humanity’s greatest challenge and with the greatest financial, environmental, and social impact opportunities of our lifetime. Pennsaco has built a practical, long-term, sustainable energy and climate change solution with proven, effective, technology that addresses primary climate, waste, energy, and quality of life challenges we face.
Pennsaco’s System Sequesters & Offsets Carbon Dioxide Emissions Through Multiple Pathways:
  • Consumes Carbon Dioxide
  • Biochar sequesters carbon. Offsets 3 metric tons CO2e/ton.  12% of the worlds GHG could be offset using biochar
  • Green hydrogen, renewable electricity, biofuels/products displace fossil fuel derived energy/products in transport, industrial, electricity & heat production, and agricultural sectors which together are responsible for 84% of global GHG emissions
  • Recycling biomass and organic waste avoids associated methane emissions, 80 times more potent than CO2
  • Recycling plastic waste into new plastic products and biochemicals avoids CO2 emissions associated with virgin plastics produced from fossil fuels.


80% of all waste is incinerated or landfilled. McKinsey estimates that $320 is lost in every ton  – roughly the GDP of Sweden – every year. This waste will double by 2025 and annual waste management costs will rise from $202 billion to over $374 billion by 2025.   Pennsaco’s technology unlocks the value of that waste, returning those resources to the economy and generating outsized returns.
Pennsacos’s ultra efficient system captures 95% of the BTU value locked within the feedstock, and converts that energy to power, hydrocarbons, and biocarbons. The power is green, the hydrocarbons replace crude oil with renewable fuels and green chemicals, and biocarbons improve water quality and reduce the use of unsafe herbicides and pesticides in agriculture. What’s left is a bit of sterile ash, reduced to 4-5% of the original volume.
Pennsaco has successfully processed:
  • Municipal solid waste
  • Crop residue, nut shells, agricultural and wood mill waste
  • Wide variety of biomass sources
  • Rubber tires, construction debris, other wastes
  • Run data available to validate performance

The Market Opportunity

$11 T
Green Hydrogen will be an $11 Trillion market by 20501 presenting investors with a “once in a lifetime opportunity”2 and first movers with unparalleled advantage to shape the market.3
        1 Bank of America, 2020
2Goldman Sachs Market Outlook, 2020
        3 Baker Mackenzie, 2020

$13 B

Sales of biocarbons like biochar and activated carbon will reach $13 Billion by 2027, not including carbon credits.  Carbon credits for biochar are currently trading at $119 ton/CO2e.
Chemicals from crude oil are in almost everything we see, touch, and use. Hydrocarbons are the building blocks for hundreds of today’s most common chemicals.  Pennsaco generates large volumes of pure hydrocarbons that require no costly clean up.  Pennsaco turns manufacturing green.